Monthly Archives: September 2020
Many of my client inquiries deal with the seemingly overwhelming complexity of maturing cloud adoption — especially with the current wave of pandemic-driven late adopters, who are frequently facing business directives to move fast but see only an immense tidal wave of insurmountably complex tasks.
A lot of my advice is focused on starting small — or at least tackling reasonably-scoped projects. The following is specifically applicable to IaaS / IaaS+PaaS:
Build a cloud center of excellence. You can start a CCOE with just a single person designated as a cloud architect. Standing up a CCOE is probably going to take you a year of incremental work, during which cloud adoption, especially pilot projects, can move along. You might have to go back and retroactively apply governance and good practices to some projects. That’s usually okay.
Start with one cloud. Don’t go multicloud from the start. Do one. Get good at it (or at least get a reasonable way into a successful implementation). Then add another. If there’s immediate business demand (with solid business-case justifications) for more than one, get an MSP to deal with the additional clouds.
Don’t build a complex governance and ops structure based on theory. Don’t delay adoption while you work out everything you think you’ll need to govern and manage it. If you’ve never used cloud before, the reality may be quite different than you have in your head. Run a sequence of increasingly complex pilot projects to gain practical experience while you do preparatory work in the background. Take the lessons learned and apply them to that work.
Don’t build massive RFPs to choose a provider. Almost all organizations are better off considering their strategic priorities and then matching a cloud provider to those priorities. (If priorities are bifurcated between running the legacy and building new digital capabilities, this might encourage two strategic providers, which is fine and commonplace.) Massive RFPs are a lot of work and are rarely optimal. (Government folks might have no choice, unfortunately.)
Don’t try to evaluate every service. Hyperscale cloud providers have dozens upon dozens of services. You won’t use all of them. Don’t bother to evaluate all of them. If you think you might use a service in the future, and you want to compare that service across providers… well, by the time you get around to implementing it, all of the providers will have radically updated that service, so any work you do now will be functionally useless. Look just at the services that you are certain you will use immediately and in the very near (no more than one year) future. Validate a subset of services for use, and add new validations as needed later on.
Focus on thoughtful workload placement. Decide who your approved and preferred providers are, and build a workload placement policy. Look for “good technical fit” and not necessarily ideal technical fit; integration affinities and similar factors are more important. The time to do a detailed comparison of an individual service’s technical capabilities is when deciding workload placement, not during the RFP phase.
Accept the limits of cloud portability. Cloud providers don’t and will probably never offer commoditized services. Even when infrastructure resources seem superficially similar, there are still meaningful differences, and the management capabilities wrapped around those resources are highly differentiated. You’re buying into ecosystems that have the long-term stickiness of middleware and management software. Don’t waste time on single-pane-of-glass no-lock-in fantasies, no matter how glossily pretty the vendor marketing material is. And no, containers aren’t magic in this regard.
Links are to Gartner research and are paywalled.
Pondering the care and feeding of your multicloud gelatinous cube. (Which engulfs everything in its path, and digests everything organic.)
Most organizations end up multicloud, rather than intending to be multicloud in a deliberate and structured way. So typical tales go like this: The org started doing digital business-related new applications on AWS and now AWS has become the center of gravity for all new cloud-native apps and cloud-related skills. Then the org decided to migrate “boring” LOB Windows-based COTS to the cloud for cost-savings, and lifted-and-shifted them onto Azure (thereby not actually saving money, but that’s a post for another day). Now the org has a data science team that thinks that GCP is unbearably sexy. And there’s a floating island out there of Oracle business applications where OCI is being contemplated. And don’t forget about the division in China, that hosts on Alibaba Cloud…
Multicloud is inevitable in almost all organizations. Cloud IaaS+PaaS spans such a wide swathe of IT functions that it’s impractical and unrealistic to assume that the organization will be single-vendor over the long term. Just like the enterprise tends to have at least three of everything (if not ten of everything), the enterprise is similarly not going to resist the temptation of being multicloud, even if it’s complex and challenging to manage, and significantly increases management costs. It is a rare organization that both has diverse business needs, and can exercise the discipline to use a single provider.
Despite recognizing the giant ooze that we see squelching our way, along with our unavoidable doom, there are things we can do to prepare, govern, and ensure that we retain some of our sanity.
For starters, we can actively choose our multicloud strategy and stance. We can classify providers into tiers, decide what providers are approved for use and under what circumstances, and decide what providers are preferred and/or strategic.
We can then determine the level of support that the organization is going to have for each tier — decide, for instance, that we’ll provide full governance and operations for our primary strategic provider, a lighter-weight approach that leans on an MSP to support our secondary strategic provider, and less support (or no support beyond basic risk management) for other providers.
After that, we can build an explicit workload placement policy that has an algorithm that guides application owners/architects in deciding where particular applications live, based on integration affinities, good technical fit, etc.
Note that cost-based provider selection and cost-based long-term workload placement are both terrible ideas. This is a constant fight between cloud architects and procurement managers. It is rooted in the erroneous idea that IaaS is a commodity, and that provider pricing advantages are long-term rather than short-lived. Using cost-based placement often leads to higher long-term TCO, not to mention a grand mess with data gravity and thus data management, and fragile application integrations.
See my new research note, “Comparing Cloud Workload Placement Strategies” (Gartner paywall) for a guide to multicloud IaaS / IaaS+PaaS strategies (including when you should pursue a single-cloud approach). In a few weeks, you’ll see the follow-up doc “Designing a Cloud Workload Placement Policy” publish, which provides a guide to writing such policies, with an analysis of different placement factors and their priorities.
Responsibility for cloud operations is often a political football in enterprises. Sometimes nobody wants it; it’s a toxic hot potato that’s apparently coated in developer cooties. Sometimes everybody wants it, and some executives think that control over it are going to ensure their next promotion / a handsome bonus / attractiveness for their next job. Frequently, developers and the infrastructure & operations (I&O) orgs clash over it. Sometimes, CIOs decide to just stuff it into a Cloud Center of Excellence team which started out doing architecture and governance, and then finds itself saddled with everything else, too.
Lots of arguments are made for it to live in particular places and to be executed in various ways. There’s inevitably a clash between the “boring” stuff that is basically lifted-and-shifted and rarely changes, and the fast-moving agile stuff. And different approaches to IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS. And and and…
Well, the fact of the matter is that multiple people are probably right. You don’t actually want to take a one-size-fits-all approach. You want to fit operational approaches to your business needs. And you maybe even want to have specialized teams for each major hyperscale provider, even if you adopt some common approaches across a multicloud environment. (Azure vs. non-Azure, i.e. Azure vs. AWS, is a common split, often correlated closely to Windows-based application environments vs Linux-based application environments.)
Ideally, you’re going to be highly automated, agile, cloud-native, and collaborative between developers and operators (i.e. DevOps). But maybe not for everything (i.e. not all apps are under active development).
Plus, once you’ve chosen your basic operations approach (or approaches), you have to figure out how you’re going to handle cloud configuration, release engineering, and security responsibilities. (And all the upskilling necessary to do that well!)
That’s where people tend to really get hung up. How much responsibility can I realistically push to my development teams? How much responsibility do they want? How do I phase in new operational approaches over time? How do I hook this into existing CI/CD, agile, and DevOps initiatives?
There’s no one right answer. However, there’s one answer that is almost always wrong, and that’s splitting cloud operations across the I&O functional silos — i.e., the server team deals with your EC2 VMs, your NetApp storage admin deals with your Azure Blobs, your F5 specialist configures your Google Load Balancers, your firewall team fights with your network team over who controls the VPC config (often settled, badly, by buying firewall virtual appliances), etc.
When that approach is taken, the admins almost always treat the cloud portals like they’re the latest pointy-clicky interface for a piece of hardware. This pretty much guarantees incompetence, lack of coordination, and gross inefficiency. It’s usually terrible at regardless of what scale you’re at. Unfortunately, it’s also the first thing that most people try (closely followed by massively overburdening some poor cloud architect with Absolutely Everything Cloud-Related.)
What works for most orgs: Some form of cloud platform operations, where cloud management is treated like a “product”. It’s almost an internal cloud MSP approach, where the cloud platform ops team delivers a CMP suite, cloud-enabled CI/CD pipeline integrations, templates and automation, other cloud engineering, and where necessary, consultative assistance to coders and to application management teams. That team is usually on call for incident response, but the first line for incidents is usually the NOC or the like, and the org’s usual incident management team.
But there are lots of options. Gartner clients: Want a methodical dissection of pros and cons; cloud engineering, operating, and administration tasks; job roles; coder responsibilities; security integration; and other issues? Read my new note, “Comparing Cloud Operations Approaches“, which looks at eleven core patterns along with guidance for choosing between them, andmaking a range of accompanying decisions.